Old Kingdom Elite Tombs

Bibliography of Old Kingdom elite tomb iconography and related subjects. The list is frequently updated. To suggest a title (preferably with a link to online content) or report a broken link, please contact me.

Databases

General

  • Egyptian art in the age of the pyramids (1999).
  • Arnold, D., When the Pyramids Were Built: Egyptian Art of the Old Kingdom (1999). Preview
  • Bárta, M., Journey to the West: The world of the Old Kingdom tombs in Ancient Egypt (2012).
  • Dodson, A. and Ikram, S., The Tomb in Ancient Egypt (2008).
  • Kanawati, N. and Woods, A., Artists of the Old Kingdom: Techniques and Achievements (2009).
  • McFarlane, A. and Mourad, A. (eds.), Behind the scenes: Daily life in Old Kingdom Egypt (2012).
  • Smith, W.S., A history of Egyptian sculpture and painting in the Old Kingdom
    (HESPOK), 2nd ed. (1949). Scribd
  • Snape, S., Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death (2011). Preview

Classics

Dating and development

Proceedings

Theoretical

  • Baines, J., On the status and purposes of ancient Egyptian art, CAJ 4 (1994), 67-94.
  • Brunner-Traut, E., Aspective, in: Schäfer, Principles of Egyptian art (1974).
  • Groenewegen-Frankfort, H.A., Arrest and movement (1951), chapter 2. Preview
  • Hartwig, M.K., A companion to ancient Egyptian art (2015). Preview
  • Junge, F., Vom Sinn der ägyptischen Kunst. Am Beispiel des Alten Reichs, in: 5000 Jahre Ägypten: Genese und Permanenz pharaonischer Kunst (1983), 43-60.
  • Panofsky, E., Studies in iconology (1939).
  • Schäfer, H., Principles of Egyptian art (1974).
  • Weeks, K.R., Art, word, and the Egyptian world view, in: Egyptology and the social sciences (1979), 59-81.

Interpretative

Scene types

Decorated burial chambers

Autobiographies

Architectural elements

Statues

Social aspects

Tomb preparation

Other aspects

  • Allen, J.P., Some aspects of the non-royal afterlife in the Old Kingdom, in: The Old Kingdom art and archaeology (2006), 9-17.
  • Bárta, M., Funerary rites and cults at Abusir South, BSAK 9 (2003), 17-30.
  • Bárta, M., Suková, Z. and Verner, M., The second renaissance of Abusir, in: Egyptian culture and society: Studies in honour of Naguib Kanawati I (2010), 267-279.
  • Burn, J., An ecological approach to determine the potential influence that the Pyramid Texts had upon Dynasty Six tomb decorations, in: Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2010 (2011), 233-245. Extract
  • Chauvet, V., Between a tomb and a hard place: Tomb inscriptions as a source of historical information, JARCE 49 (2013), 57-71.
  • Fischer, H.G., Varia Nova, Egyptian Studies III (1996).
  • Kanawati, N., The living and the dead in Old Kingdom tomb scenes, SAK 9 (1981), 213-225.
  • Kinney, L.J., Butcher queens of the fourth and fifth dynasties: Their association with the Acacia house and the role of butchers as ritual performers, in: Ancient Memphis: ‘Enduring is the Perfection’ (2012), 253-266.
  • Kuraszkiewicz, K.O., Orientation of Old Kingdom tombs in Saqqara, Etudes et Travaux XXVI (2013), 395-402.
  • Odler, M., Old Kingdom Copper Tools and Model Tools (2016). Publisher
  • Roth, A.M., Twisted Kilts: Variations in Aspective Representation in Old Kingdom Mastaba Chapels, in: Old Kingdom: New Perspectives (2011), 234-243.
  • Russmann, E.R., A Second Style in Egyptian Art of the Old Kingdom, MDAIK 51 (1995), 269-279.
  • Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom (1985).
  • Vachala, B., “Das vorfeld der literatur” in den privatgräbern des AR: Ein fall aus Abusir, in: Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2010, 767-777.

Giza

Excavations at Giza

Giza Series

Giza Mastabas

Tombs at Giza

  • Kanawati, N., Tombs at Giza 1: Kaiemankh (G4561) and Seshemnefer (G4940) (2001).
  • Kanawati, N., Tombs at Giza 2: Seshathetep/Heti (G5150), Nesutnefer (G4970) and Seshemnefer II (G5080) (2002).

Other tombs at Giza

Abusir

Saqqara

Saqqara Tombs

  • Davies, W.V., Saqqara Tombs I: The mastabas of Mereri and Wernu (1984).
  • Lloyd, A.B., Saqqara Tombs II: The mastabas of Meru, Semdenti, Khui and others (1990).
  • Lloyd, A.B., Saqqara Tombs III: The mastaba of Neferseshemptah (2008).

Teti Cemetery

  • Kanawati, N. and Hassan, A., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 1: The tombs of Nedjet-em-pet, Ka-aper and others (1996).
  • Kanawati, N. and Hassan, A., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 2: The tomb of Ankhmahor (1997).
  • Kanawati, N. et al., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 3: The tombs of Neferseshemre and Seankhuiptah (1998).
  • Sowada, K., Callaghan, T. and Bentley, P., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 4: Minor burials and other material (1999).
  • Kanawati, N. and Abd El-Raziq, M., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 5: The tomb of Hesi (1999).
  • Kanawati, N. and Abd El-Raziq, M., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 6: The tomb of Nikauisesi (2000).
  • Kanawati, N. and Abd El-Raziq, M., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 7: The tomb of Shepsipuptah, Merere (Merinebti), Hefi and others (2001).
  • Kanawati, N., McFarlane, A. and Sowada, K., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 8: The tomb of Inumin (2006).
  • Kanawati, N. et al., The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara 9: The tomb of Remni (2009).

North-West of Teti’s Pyramid

  • Kanawati, N. et al., Excavations at Saqqara North-West of Teti’s Pyramid I (1984).
  • El-Khouli, A. and Kanawati, N., Excavations at Saqqara North-West of Teti’s Pyramid II (1988).

Mereruka and his family

  • Kanawati, N. and Abder-Raziq, M., Mereruka and his family 1: The tomb of Meryteti (2004).
  • Kanawati, N. and Abder-Raziq, M., Mereruka and his family 2: The tomb of Waatetkhethor (2008).
  • Kanawati, N. et al., Mereruka and his family 3: The tomb of Mereruka (2011).

Unis Cemetery

  • McFarlane, A., The Unis Cemetery at Saqqara 1: The Tomb of Irukapta (2000).
  • Abder-Raziq, M. and Kanawati, N., The Unis Cemetery at Saqqara 2: Tombs of Iynefert and Ihy (reused by Idut) (2003).

Other tombs at Saqqara

Dahshur

  • Alexanian, N. Dahschur II: Das Grab des Prinzen Netjer-aperef: Die Mastabe II/1 in Dahschur (1999).
  • Amery, K.R., The Old Kingdom tomb of Pehenuka and the attribution of fragments from the offering scene, in: Current Research in Egyptology 2011 (2012), 15-24.
  • Morgan, J. de., Fouilles a Dahchour: 1894-1895 (1903).

Maidum

Provincial tombs

Deir el-Gebrawi

  • Davies, N. de G., The rock tombs of Deir el-Gebrawi (1902), 2 vols. Part I | Part II
  • Kanawati, N., Deir el-Gebrawi I: The northern cliff (2005).
  • Kanawati, N., Deir el-Gebrawi II: The southern cliff (2007).
  • Kanawati, N., Deir el-Gebrawi III: The southern cliff: the tomb of Djau/Shemai and Djau (2013).

Deshasha

  • Kanawati, N., Deshasha: The tombs of Inti, Shedu and others (1993).
  • Petrie, W.M.F., Deshasheh: 1897 (1898).

El-Hagarsa

  • Kanawati, N., The tombs of el-Hagarsa I (1993).
  • Kanawati, N., The tombs of el-Hagarsa II (1993).
  • Kanawati, N., The tombs of el-Hagarsa III (1995).

El-Hawawish/Akhmim

  • Kanawati, N. et al., The Rock Tombs of El-Hawawish: The Cemetery of Akhmin I–X (1980-1992).
  • Kanawati, N., Akhmin in the Old Kingdom 1: Chronology and Administration (1992).
  • Hope, C.A. and McFarlane, A., Akhmim in the Old Kingdom 2: The Pottery, Decoration Techniques and Colour Conventions (2006).

Meir

  • Blackman, A.M., The rock tombs of Meir (1914-1953), 6 vols. Part II | Part III
  • Kanawati, N., The Cemetery of Meir I: The Tomb of Pepyankh the Middle (2012).
  • Kanawati, N. and Evans, L., The Cemetery of Meir II: The Tomb of Pepy-ankh the Black (2014).

Qubbet el-Hawa

  • Chioffi, M. and Rigamonti, G., Qubbet el-Hawa: La tomba rupestre di Ishemai (2013).
  • Chioffi, M. and Rigamonti, G., Qubbet el-Hawa, the Rock Tomb of Ishemai, JARCE 50 (2014), 41-58.
  • Edel, E., Die Felsgräbernekropole der Qubbet el Hawa bei Assuan (1967-1971), 2 vols.
  • Vischak, D., Community and Identity in Ancient Egypt: The Old Kingdom Cemetery at Qubbet el-Hawa (2014). Preview

Other provincial tombs

  • Castel, G., Le mastaba de Khentika: Tombeau d’un gouverneur de l’oasis à la fin de l’Ancien Empire (2001).
  • Davies, N. de G., The rock tombs of Sheikh Saïd (1901).
  • El-Khouli, A. and Kanawati, N., Quseir el-Amarna: The tombs of Pepy-ankh and Khewen-wekh (1989).
  • El-Khouli, A. and Kanawati, N., The Old Kingdom tombs of El-Hammamiya (1990).
  • Fábián, A., News from Old Kingdom Thebes, in: From Illahun to Djeme: Papers Presented in Honour of Ulrich Luft (2011), 43-53.
  • Lashien, M., The Nobles of El-Qusiya in the Sixth Dynasty (2017).
  • Saleh, M., Three Old-Kingdom tombs at Thebes: I, the tomb of Unas-Ankh no 413; II, the tomb of Khenty no. 405; III, the tomb of Ihy no. 186 (1977).
  • Säve-Söderbergh, T., The Old Kingdom cemetery at Hamra Dom (El-Qasr wa es-Saiyad) (1994).
  • Thompson, E., The Old Kingdom cemetery at Tehna (2014).
  • Varille, A., La tombe de Ni-Ankh-Pepi à Zâouyet el-Mayetîn (1938).

Museum objects

PhD dissertations